Naga-ita ni Yotsu-kazari [長板に四ツ餝]
[Rikyū’s sketch¹. Naga-ita ni yotsu-kazari².]
(1) When the arrangement is reduced [from the daisu] to the naga-ita, the display [of the utensils] should likewise be abbreviated to yotsu-kazari³. The reason for this is because, in the case of the daisu, yotsu-kazari is not [usually] done⁴.
This [arrangement] can be understood from the accompanying illustration (above).
Naga-ita ni Mitsu-kazari [長板に三ツ餝]
(2) When we speak about mitsu-kazari, with respect to the naga-ita, [it means] the furo, the mizusashi, and the hishaku-tate: the case where these three objects are displayed [together on the naga-ita], as in the accompanying sketch⁵.
¹This sketch is identical to the one in Rikyū Densho — the Private Writings of Sen no Rikyū: III. The Nomura Sōkaku-ate Densho (G. Yotsu-kazari, Mitsu-kazari, and Futatsu-kazari on the Daisu). Only the caption is different.
²I have added these words*. The sketch, as printed in the Sen no Rikyū Zen-shu, is followed by a text which has been translated below.
The caption reads: “the way to arrange the ita is the same as before. In the case of this kazari, when one will make tea the other utensils should be brought out [from the katte], and, as usual, arranged together [on the utensil mat]. After the service of tea is finished, once again these [other] things should [all] be taken [back] in[to the katte].”
*Naga-ita yotsu-kazari [長板四ツ餝] means that the furo, mizusashi, shakutate, and koboshi are arranged on the naga-ita as shown. (The futaoki is placed inside the koboshi.)
³³The arrangement is typically done like this. (The naga-ita is centered between the heri, and placed so that its front edge is 1-shaku 3-sun above the middle of the utensil mat.):
Note that when a large iron furo* is used on the naga-ita (as shown; according to the Nampō Roku, this is the situation for which the naga-ita was originally created), the furo will extend beyond the edges of the naga-ita†. While the mizusashi is usually ceramic, lacquered, or kiji‡, the shaku-tate and koboshi should both be bronze. The futaoki should be a take-wa**, according to Rikyū’s stated preference.
*The rule is that a medium-sized bronze kimen-buro (or, later, the shaku-maru do-buro [尺丸土風炉] that were made as substitutes for the medium-sized bronze kimen-buro) must never be used except on the daisu. (Despite the popularity of furo of this size since women began to predominate in chanoyu from the early Shōwa period, they really should not be used except on the daisu.)
The furo used on a naga-ita (or on a 9-shaku 5-sun square ko-ita [小板]) should always be a large-sized furo, and either iron (a large bronze furo can also be used, but they were exceptionally rare in antiquity) or ceramic (originally, the lacquered Nara-buro and mayu-buro).
The small sized bronze furo may be used either on the small daisu (this was its original seat), or placed on a 1-shaku 3-sun square ō-ita [大板].
◉ These were the original rules, and it is still best not to violate them (especially through ignorance).
†Though not to the extent that it does beyond the edges of a ko-ita — which was also designed to accommodate this large iron furo.
‡Unpainted wood, such as the kiji-tsurube [木地釣瓶]. In general, the mizusashi should not be bronze, and matched sets of ceramic kaigu were never used in antiquity.
The proper feeling is achieved by a large iron kimen-buro, a ceramic mizusashi (such as celadon, or brown-glazed Seto ware), a bronze shaku-tate and koboshi, and a bamboo futaoki.
**Take-wa [竹輪] = hikkiri [引切]: a bamboo futaoki.
⁴While this kind of arrangement was occasionally (but very rarely) used on the daisu, it was done only under very special circumstances (i.e., to demean the arrangement on one daisu that will be used when serving the attendants, in deference to another that will be used to serve tea to their lord, according to Rikyū), it is considered the usual arrangement of utensils on the naga-ita. (Conversely, nanatsu-kazari should never be attempted on the naga-ita.)
⁵Rikyū’s sketch is missing, but it is not difficult to understand what he intends from his earlier drawing (this is a computer-generated sketch):
Here, the shaku-tate would be moved forward a little, but it remains on the far side of the midline of the naga-ita.
The above sketch shows the disposition of the various utensils during the temae. As in the case of naga-ita yotsu-kazari, the chawan and chaire, and also the koboshi and futaoki, should be brought out from the katte at the beginning of the temae, and removed from the tearoom again at the end.
Even though the naga-ita, like the daisu, is used in the shoin, in the case where the koboshi is carried out from the katte, it should not be bronze*. One made of pottery, or a mentsū†, would be better to use in this setting. Likewise, the futaoki should be bamboo.
*Originally, bronze utensils were used only when they could be displayed (on the daisu, or on a naga-ita). Because of neglect (the daisu and naga-ita temae came to be associated more and more with the daimyo class and the reception of noblemen as the Edo period progressed, and these kinds of temae fell out of favor with the passing of the age; during the Meiji and Taishō periods, only wabi-style gatherings were generally held by the wealthy businessmen who dominated tea practice at this time, hence the utensils associated with the daisu were either abandoned — oftentimes melted down to make projectile casings during the war years — or stored away more or less permanently). Then the fact that bronze koboshi are often smaller, lighter, and more elegant than the pottery pieces that the men preferred (and do not have to be replaced every time — technically even during practice sessions — like the wooden mentsū) made them attractive to the women who became the mainstay of chanoyu from the early Shōwa period onward.
†Mentsū [面桶]: a “magemono kensui" in modern-day parlance.
The name mentsū means a face-washing bucket or basin: originally these came in two sizes, a large one (which was used for washing the face and hands) 7-sun in diameter, and a small one 5-sun in diameter (the kind most commonly encountered nowadays — originally used to dip water out of the bathtub to rinse the body while bathing, or to fill the larger mentsū). Because these were actually bathing utensils, they were both cheap and commonly available even in the most remote hamlets, hence they made good substitutes for the other more elaborate (and expensive) kinds of koboshi. Likewise, the fact that they would be used only once and then discarded (probably demoted to a more utilitarian role in the bathroom) meant that they were absolutely pure, an aspect especially attractive to the early chajin.
The mentsū has been used for chanoyu at least since the days of Jōō and Rikyū, and possibly as early as the time of Shukō, in part because they are very close in size to the classical koboshi — the large koboshi, such as the ceramic kame-no-futa [甕の蓋; often written with the hentai-gama 亀の蓋, or phonetically as カメノフタ], is 7-sun in diameter; the small bronze koboshi generally displayed on the daisu (or naga-ita) are mostly 4-sun 6-bu in diameter (not only very close to the 5-sun diameter of the small mentsū, but also the space available to the koboshi is exactly 5-sun, since it must not cross over the midline, nor extend into the outer 2-sun yūyo [有余] that exists at the front edge of the ji-ita of the daisu).